Vaccine, Cholera in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Risk Factor: CM
Class: Serums, toxoids, and vaccines / Vaccines

Contents of this page:
Fetal Risk Summary
Breast Feeding Summary
References
Questions and Answers

Fetal Risk Summary

Cholera vaccine is a killed bacteria vaccine (1,2). Cholera during pregnancy may result in significant morbidity and mortality to the mother and the fetus, particularly during the 3rd trimester (1). The risk to the fetus from maternal vaccination is unknown because there is no specific information on the safety of the vaccine during pregnancy (3). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that the use of the vaccine in pregnancy should reflect actual need (3). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists states that the indications for the vaccine are not altered by pregnancy, but the vaccine should only be given in unusual outbreak situations (1).

Breast Feeding Summary

Maternal vaccination with cholera vaccine has increased specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titers in breast milk (4). In a second study, cholera vaccine (whole cell plus toxoid) was administered to six lactating mothers, resulting in a significant rise in milk anticholera toxin IgA titers in five of the patients (5). Milk from three of these five mothers also had a significant increase in anti-cholera toxin IgG titers.

References

  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Immunization during pregnancy. Technical Bulletin. No. 160, October 1991.
  2. Amstey MS. Vaccination in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1983;10:1322.
  3. CDC. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. Cholera Vaccine. MMWR 1988;37 (No. 40):61724.
  4. Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J, Hanson LA, Lindblad BS, Quereshi F, Rahimtoola RJ. Boosting of secretory IgA antibody responses in man by parenteral cholera vaccination. Scand J Immunol 1977;6:134549.
  5. Merson MH, Black RE, Sack DA, Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J. Maternal cholera immunisation and secretory IgA in breast milk. Lancet 1980;1:9312.

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Questions and Answers

The new vaccine for cholera is taken orally but some vaccines are not. Why are some not taken orally?, A-level

They are destroyed by acid in the stomach.

why does the US worry less about cholera and why do we recieve a vaccine when we tarvel to other countries?, yeah just what i asked

We have sewage treatment plants whereas countries that have cholera outbreaks generally do not have as good of water treatment facilities.

This is why you do not need a vaccine for Cholera in the US but when you travel you may get food that has been in contact with feces because that is where cholera comes from and having a vaccine is better than crapping yourself to death.

Yeah, that is just what I said.

Do I also need to get hepatitis vaccine?, I am in Africa now, i already had following vaccinations: cholera, typhoid, yellow fever and meningities, to I also need to get hepatitis vaccine? The nurse told me that these vaccination that i took already can prevent it so no need to have the hepatitis vaccination, any advise?

You definately need to get the hepatitits injections. Currently you can only be protected for hep A and B, and it can be given in one injection (they must combine the ingredients in the drug) but you need to get a course of 3 injections to be fully covered. The other injections you have had, for typhoid etc, will not give you protection against hepatitis at all, it's a separate vaccine, the vaccines do different things. You need to go and see a reputable doctor to get vaccinated. Although I'm surpised your own doctor didn't make you get hepatitis vaccination before you went to Africa. Hepatitis vaccine is especially important if you are working close to people and children, like as a health care worker, or child carer/teacher.

vaccines how do they help?, people can be injected with a vaccine against cholera. The vaccine contains a tiny amount of the cholera poison and NOT the cholera bacteria. As a result people become immune to cholera. But what i don't get is how does the vaccine make a person immune to cholera please explain

A vaccine containing even a small amount of cholera toxin (A subunit) would be extremely toxic. I don't think you could take enough to mount an immune response without dying.

Just googling, I see there are some vaccines that contain bacteria, or bacteria plus the B subunit of the toxin, which is not actually toxic. The B subunit is on the bacterial cell surface, and is used to inject the A subunit into host cells.

So, if you had antibodies to the B subunit, you'd have antibodies that would attack the surface of the bacterium, and the B subunit alone would not be toxic as a vaccine.

Which was a belief held by supporters of the Social Gospel?, 1. Which was a belief held by supporters of the Social Gospel?

A.God wanted everyone to be a businessman and become rich.

B.Christians should try to make modern society more moral and just.

C.The government should replace free public education with private religious education.

D.Giving money to public institutions was a waste of time.



2. In what way did Romantics react to the Industrial Revolution?

A.Romantics wanted to show how terrible industrial life really was.

B.The wealth brought by industrialization led to more expensive paintings.

C.To oppose the dirtiness of factories, they wanted to celebrate nature.

D.Fewer people had interest in art, so they needed to make cheaper paintings.



3. Who would most avoid showing details in a painting?

A.Impressionists

B.Realists

C.Romantics



4. Which most directly caused public-health problems in large American and European cities?

A.The cholera vaccine

B.A lack of proper sewers

C.Pasteurization

D.Natural selection



5. Which group's main goal was women's suffrage?

A.NAWSA

B.YMCA

C.The Salvation Army

D.The Social Gospel



6. How did education change in the late 1800s?

A.Attending kindergarten became more common.

B.Schools became less centrally controlled.

C.Less children attended high school.

D.School became less about job training.



7. The idea that species can gradually adapt to their environment is called:

A.Social Darwinism

B.natural selection

C.laissez-faire

D.the origin of species



8. What was a way that reformers in the late 1800s tried to help working-class people in America and Europe?
A.By providing free libraries

B.By eliminating all child labor

C.By providing free public transportation in cities

D.By promoting social Darwinism



9. What was Louis Pasteur responsible for?

A.Creating the smallpox vaccine

B.Learning how germs cause sickness

C.Building public libraries

D.Establishing the first nursing college



10. How did Andrew Carnegie express his belief in the Gospel of Wealth?

A.He refused to give any money to help others because it would only encourage them not to work hard.

B.He raised the wages for all the workers at all of his steel mills to record-high levels.

C.He donated millions to philanthropy and founded thousands of public libraries.

D.He gave his fortune to the federal government so that it could provide social services.

A group of Progressives commences the "social gospel" movement, seeking to create a new socially conscious version of Christianity as an alternative to the church's traditional emphasis on individual responsibility for sin and its exclusive focus on religious salvation.

From Shmoop/Social Gospel

Social Darwinism help??? 10 points FREE!!!?, 1.What was Social Darwinism?

a.The belief that the "survival of the fittest" applied to human society and that only the strongest people or groups should survive and prosper

b. Charles Darwin's explanation of how human society developed over time from prehistory to the present

c. A scientific alternative to Darwin's theory of evolution that was taught in schools instead of natural selection

d. A political movement that tried to get rid of all private property and share it equally among the people



2. In what way was Realism a reaction to Romanticism?

a.Realists did not like how Romanticists ignored the reality of industrial life.

b.Realists were tired of the finely detailed paintings of the Romantics.

c.Realists wanted to show that nature was actually beautiful.

d.Realists thought the Romantics had poor technique.



3. Who would attempt to create the most lifelike representation in a painting?

a.Impressionists

b.Realists

c.Romantics

4. Which most directly caused public-health problems in large American and European cities?

a.The cholera vaccine

b. A lack of proper sewers

c.Pasteurization

d. Natural selection

a
a
c
b-- I'm assuming this question is about society before sanitation campaigns in the 19th/20th centuries. Also, the other answers are just stupid.

Vaccinations??, What is the name for the vaccine for cholera and how does it work?

SBL Vaccin Cholera Vaccine "DUKORAL" (The vaccine is taken by mouth).

How does it work?

Dukoral oral cholera vaccine contains a mixture of inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria (the bacteria that cause cholera) and a non-toxic component of the toxin that these bacteria produce. It works by stimulating the body's immune response to the cholera bacteria, without actually causing the disease.

Which of the following medical breakthroughs began saving many lives in the late 1800s?, A. The discovery of penicillin and other antibiotics

B. The creation of vaccines for diseases like tuberculosis and cholera

C. The use of radiation therapy to treat cancer

D. All of the above

Definitely B. Vaccines existed in the early 1800s; the other breakthroughs did not occur until the 1900s.

EDIT: After reading the link above me, I see that radiation therapy did exist. However, it did not "save many lives" as the question phrases, so I'm staying with B.

4 Quick Blood Bio Q's... help please, stuck?, 1. The physician treated a patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. This condition is characterized by the buildup of mucous in the lungs, which results in reduced gas exchange. The body compensates for this reduction by increasing its production of
a) plasma
b) platelets
c) red blood cells
d) white blood cells

2. Tourists are advised to obtain cholera vaccinations before arriving on the island. The vaccine protects them against cholera for a number of years by causing the production of
a) platelets
b) antigens
c) killer T-cells
d) memory T-cells

3. The physician noted that if the worker were exposed to the same bacteria sometime in the future he might not develop an infection. The most likely reason is that
a) suppressor T-cells will slow down the action of the acteria
b) memory T-cells will rapidly produce antibodies to the bacteria
c) antibodies will still be present in the worker's system from the 1st exposure to the bacteria
d) killer T-cells will still be present in the worker's system for the 1st exposure to the bacteria

4. In some cafeterias, plexiglass acts as a barrier between food and bacteria. Which of the gollowing structures performs a similar function in the human body?
a) Skin
b) Antibodies
c) Macrophages
d) Killer (cytotoxic) T-cells

c b c a

For people against Animal Testing?, These were developed from animal testing:

Vaccines

Anthrax
Chicken Pox
Cholera
Diphtheria
Flu
Influenza B
Hepatitis A and B
Measles
Mumps
Polki
Rabies
Rubella
Smallpox
Tetanus
Whooping Cough
Yellow Fever

Medications

Isulin
Penicillin
Streptomycin
Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Pain Killers
Chemotherapy
Cyclosporine

Medical Devices

Pacemakers
Artificial Heart
Artificial Hip
Artificial Knee

Medical Procedures

Angioplasty
Organ Transplantation
Heart Transplantation
Kidney Transplantation
Liver Transplantation

Now without animal testing, a lot of people would be dead.
So why are you opposed to animal testing?

Because we don't belive that animals have to suffer for operations that will never be preformed on them and products that they will never use.
The fact that we don't take medicine or use products is our own choice and it means that I can live a life harming as few animals in my life that is possible. It means that I have a clear conscience when I go to be at night, knowing that I havent helped harm any thing that can't defend it's self.
You may think that we are all fighting for a pointless cause but it helps us, knowing that we are doing the right thing.
You may not understand why people don't approve of animal testing but the very least you could do would be to respect them.
Just so you there are different types of animal testing e.g. cosmetics and medical, those are just two.
So you may want to concider looking into it before you generlise a huge percentage of the population. I'm sure you could google that question and find loads more information.

It's plain and simple ethics it's in ever religion, like saying why do you belive in God [or your religions equivelent] because theres no proof other than the bible. You dont want people to suffer but God still lets them, he doesnt stop us creating wars killing millions, like the holocaust, adn destroying what left of 'his' world. Your inflicting pain on something willingly and by useing these things yoru saying inflicting and sufereing is ok. Surely 'God' will smite you down for being so evil and not showing compasion to other beings.