Vaccine, Hepatitis B in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Fetal Risk Summary
Hepatitis B virus vaccine inactivated (recombinant) is a noninfectious surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine (1,2). Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the vaccine.
No risks to the fetus from maternal vaccination have been reported (1,2). One source recommends that administration after the 1st trimester, because of a theoretical risk of teratogenicity, is preferred (3). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that there is no apparent risk of fetal adverse effects (based on unpublished CDC data) and that pregnancy is not a contraindication to vaccination in women (1). Pre- and postexposure prophylaxis is indicated in pregnant women at high risk of infection (2,4). (See also Immune Globulin, Hepatitis B).
Breast Feeding Summary
No data are available, but the vaccine is not contraindicated during lactation (1).
- CDC. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR 1991;40(No. RR-13):125.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Immunization during pregnancy. Technical Bulletin. No. 160, October 1991.
- Linder N, Ohel G. In utero vaccination. Clin Perinatol 1994;21:66374.
Faix RG. Maternal immunization to prevent fetal and neonatal infection. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1991;34:27787.